Water Quality and Hydrology


Water quality is the condition of water based on physical, chemical, and biological properties with respect to a specific purpose or use. Hydrology is the science of the properties, distribution, and effects of water.

Related resources for County planning include:

 


Map of Data


Download mxd

The ESRI mxd file of the services used to create the above map.


Resource Information
Hydrology
Water Quality


Best Management Practices

Appropriate best management practices (BMPs) to prevent water pollution are extremely varied and depend on the specific land use context. BMPs are the primary methods used to control NPS pollution. Many of these guidelines are focused on practices that slow runoff and create filters to prevent pollutants from entering waterbodies or aquifers [7].

Agriculture

  • Maintain conservation tillage and crop residues after crop harvest to maintain, cover, and stabilize soil.
  • Manage fertilizer application to minimize transport of nutrients away from desired targets.
  • Manage pesticide applications to minimize transport of chemicals away from desired targets.
  • Establish conservation buffers around stream channels and waterbodies.
  • Increase irrigation efficiency to reduce erosion.
  • Improve erosion and sediment control to prevent sediment entering stream channels and waterbodies.
  • Ensure safe storage and handling of fertilizer, pesticides, and petroleum.

Animal Operations

  • Control runoff.
  • Establish proper waste storage and confinement.
  • Establish proper nutrient management through Nutrient Management Plans (NMP).
  • Enable UPDES permits to medium and large confined animal operations.

Grazing

  • Control grazing intensity to maintain cover and protect the soil.
  • Manage grazing in the riparian zones to minimize streambank damage, overgrazing, and animal waste.

Urban Stormwater

  • Construction Sites  
    • Preserve existing vegetation wherever possible.
    • Utilize construction phasing to prevent widespread disturbance of vegetation and soils.
    • Establish sediment traps at construction entrances to remove sediment from vehicle tires.
    • Install silt fences or coir fiber roll to trap sediment.
    • Redirect potential runoff around or away from construction sites.
  • Industrial and Municipals Sites
    • Establish vehicle cleaning areas with drainage to sanitary sewer.
    • Use detention/retention/infiltration basins.
    • Use storm drain inlet protection.
    • Minimize stormwater drainage.
    • Practice fugitive dust suppression.
    • Utilize secondary containment of stormwater and runoff.
  • Residential Areas
    • Maintain vegetative ground cover and mulch to minimize stormwater drainage.
    • Establish water and sediment containment basins
    • Establish pet waste ordinances.
    • Use street cleaning.
    • Use fertilizer and pesticides at appropriate time and amounts.
    • Educate the public about stormwater, storm drains, water quality, and groundwater.

Forest Roads

  • Minimize number and size of roads.
  • Locate roads on well-drained soils, use drainage systems on roads over 10%.
  • Maintain trees and shrubs as base of road slope to filter and trap sediment.

Abandoned Mines

  • Manage runoff.
  • Stabilize fine soil.
  • Trap mobilized particles.
  • Comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).
  • Comply with Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act

Assisting Agencies and Contacts


Economic Considerations
  • In 2011 fishing Utah’s lakes, streams, and rivers brought in $259 million. This includes the cost of equipment and multipliers like lodging, retail purchases, and dining in restaurants. Fishing relies on good water quality and hydrology [8].
  • A 2012 study of outdoor recreation found that $1.2 billion was spent for water related activities in Utah. [9]
  • It is much more cost effective to protect the water at its source and prevent contamination than to treat it in a wastewater treatment plant. “Nationwide, every $1 spent on source water protection saves an average of $27 in wastewater treatment costs” [10].
  • Prepare60, a center established by four water conservancy districts in Utah, published a 2014 report illustrating that $17.9 billion spent on water infrastructure maintenance alone enables $5.4 trillion in ongoing economic activity. An investment in water resources of $15 billion would create 930,000 new jobs, $93 billion in incremental economic output, and $71 billion in additional personal income [11].


Impact Considerations

Water is critical for the development of communities and life in general. However, the amount of water available at a specific area may be limited and changes depending on climate conditions and seasonality. Furthermore, human related factors can seriously affect water quality.

The Utah Division of Water Resources projects that statewide demand for water will outstrip the currently developed water supply in about 25 years. This will require a strategy that may include conservation efforts, developing local water supplies, and the major development of new sources of supply.

Water use data is required by the state every 5 years; however, to improve local government’s’ ability to forecast water needs, a 2015 audit recommended that the state collect water use data annually [12].

When deciding how water should be used, it is important to know the returns from different water uses. Generally, water that is used for municipal and industrial purposes yields a higher economic value than water used for agricultural purposes. “This would suggest that increases in water production from watersheds serving urban areas are likely to have relatively high returns, while water increases used for irrigation use will have relatively low returns” [14].

A 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers’ report gave Utah’s Drinking Water and Supply a letter grade of C and its Wastewater and Stormwater a grade of C+.  The report recommended that old underground water and sewer pipes be scheduled for replacement. Their useful life is only 50 to 70 years. Waiting until the pipes fail is the more expensive and environmentally costly option. Public health should be the biggest consideration [14].


Data Download
  GIS Data Map Service Web Map Document  Tabular Data  Website
Data NameData ExplanationPublication DateSpatial AccuracyContact
Aquifer Recharge
Groundwater recharge and discharge areasAugust 2011UnknownUtah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water
Drinking Water Source Protection Zones (Protected Data, Contact DEQ using webmap below to access).
Administrative protective zones placed around culinary water wells to protect groundwater quality.UnknownUnknownUtah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water
Groundwater Discharge
Permitted groundwater discharges2015UnknownUtah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality
Monitored Lakes
Point file representing lakes monitored by DWQ for water quality20101:24,000Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality
NPDES
Regulated discharge locations2015UnknownUtah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality
PRISM Climate Group
Database for precipitation and temperature. Useful in determining which precipitation zone an area is located in.Variable4-km grid resolutionPrism Climate Group
Oregon State University
Snowtel Sites

Recent and historic precipitation recordsUnknownUnknownUSDS NRCS National Water and Climate Center
Stream Gauges
,
Stream Gage Locations9/30/2011UnknownUnited States Geological Survey
Stream Monitored Sites
Point file representing DWQ stream monitoring locations20071:24,000Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality
Surface Water Protection Zones (Protected Data, Contact DEQ using webmap below to access).
Administrative protective zones placed around culinary water sources to protect groundwater quality.UnknownUnknownUtah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water
USGS National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)
(AGRC) , (USGS) , (USGS)
Lakes, Rivers, Streams, & SpringsAGRC download 1/18/2013;
USGS download 10/15/2015;
National Map Service Live Data;
1:24,000United States Geological Survey
USGS Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD)
,
Watershed Boundary (a.k.a Hydrologic Unit)10/23/20151:24,000United States Geological Survey
Water Quality Assessment Units
DWQ assessment units. Data contains assigned beneficial use categories20101:24,000Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality

References

  1. Ramsey, et. a. 2013. Watershed Basins of Utah. http://extension.usu.edu/utahrangelands/files/uploads/RRU_Section_Four.pdf Accessed: August 3, 2016.
  2. Eastman, Adam R. ND. The Central Utah Project, Bonneville Unit Historic Reclamation Projects Book. Accessed: August 3, 2016.
  3. Utah Department of Natural Resources, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources. 2015. Utah Wildlife Action Plan, Draft Version 6-4-2015.
  4. Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Utah Division of Water Quality. 2014. Integrated Report: Assessment Methods.
  5. Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Utah Division of Water Quality. 2014. Nonpoint Source Management Plan for Abandoned Mines in Utah.
  6. Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Utah Division of Water Quality. 2013. Utah Statewide Nonpoint Source Pollution Management Plan.
  7. Johnson, C. and S. Buffler. 2008. Riparian Buffer Design Guidelines For Water Quality And Wildlife Habitat Functions On Agricultural Landscapes In The Intermountain West. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. January.
  8. Kim, M. and P.M. Jakus. 2013. The Economic Contribution and Benefits of Utah’s Blue Ribbon Fisheries. Utah State University, Center for Society, Economy, and the Environment Research Report #4, Feb. 27.
  9. Southwick Associates. 2013.  The Economic Contributions of Outdoor Recreation: Technical Report on Methods and Findings.
  10. Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Water Quality. 2013. Fact Sheet: Nutrient Pollution in Utah.
  11. Aguero, J. 2014. Utah’s Water Dependent Economy. A Prepare60 Report.
  12. State of Utah, Office of the Legislative Auditor General. 2015. A Performance Audit of Projections of Utah’s Water Needs. Report to the Utah Legislature, Number 2015.01. May.
  13. Mohammed and Tarboton. 2008. Watershed Management and Water Production Study for State of Utah: A Report for the Utah Governor’s Public Lands Office. Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
  14. American Society of Civil Engineers. 2015. Report Card for Utah’s Infrastructure.